There is an emerging view about human health that many of our problems have two central causes.
i) We live very removed from how we evolved to live. e.g. Living in Nature, consuming natural food rather than agricultural mass produced food (using chemicals), exercising each day as we struggled to survive.
2. We are now exposed to tens of thousands of 'man made' chemicals, of which only several hundred have been studied in any great detail in terms of their effects on human health.
So the first step in any disease treatment must be to learn from Nature
and try and eliminate toxins from entering the body (clean food, air and
water), and to ensure that you get daily physical exercise outside (some
exposure to sun each day is important).
We are planning a substantial evolutionary health section on this website which will cover this in more detail, and also look at holistic health and homeopathy treatments for cancer.
In relation to breast cancer there seems to be a causal connection between
the number of times a woman has menstrual cycles and the incidence of breast
cancer. Given that our ancestors did not have birth control, thus the female
was either pregnant or breast feeding and infertile, thus our ancestors
did not have many menstrual cycles.
How can this help women in our modern world?
Well it suggests two obvious things.
i) We need to find better hormone strategies for women's birth control pills that mimic more closely the natural cycle of a women of being pregnant and then breast feeding (to minimise number and severity of menstrual cycles). Whether this is possible or not is unknown, but it should certainly be explored.
ii) Women should be encouraged to breast feed for as long as possible (probably up to three years is natural).
For now please enjoy the following articles (which we are working on at
From the website: 'This study explores whether the lifetime cumulative number of menstrual cycles, as an index for total exposure to endogenous estrogens, and the number of menstrual cycles until a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP), are associated with breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.
We observed an increased breast cancer risk in women with a higher number of cumulative menstrual cycles in their lifetime.'
This study found similar results: A highly significant linear relationship between breast cancer risk and both the cumulative number of cycles before a first FTP (full term pregnancy) and lifetime.
Several reproductive factors have been linked to increased risk of breast cancer - from early menses and late menopause to childlessness and late age at first pregnancy. A new study would add yet another: menstrual cycles that are typically either shorter or longer than average.
Although epidemiogical studies have linked lifetime estrogen exposures to breast cancer - with higher exposures increasing risk - Whelan and many others suspect that hormones in general (including estrogen and progesterone), and their peaks during an ovulation cycle, collectively affect cancer risk.
In the Dec. 15, 1994 American Journal of Epidemiology, Whelan reports that compared to women with menstrual cycles lasting 26 to 29 days during the most stable period of their reproductive lives (age 25 to 29), those with shorter cycles face roughly twice the risk of breast cancer. Her team also found a near doubling of breast cancer risk in women whose cycles exceeded the average length.
Whelan concludes that women with extremes in cycle length probably possess “some hormonal disturbance that not only gives them a wacky cycle . . . but also increases their risk of breast cancer."
From the website: 'Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. While the exact cause (or causes) of breast cancer remains unknown, certain features or aspects of a woman’s life appear to increase the chance that she may develop breast cancer during her lifetime. A woman who has her first menstrual period at an early age is more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer than a woman who has her first menstrual period at a later age. Women who produce an egg during each menstrual cycle are also more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer compared to women who do not produce an egg at each menstrual cycle.
The primary purpose of this study is to examine certain behaviors, specifically what a woman eats and her amount of physical activity, and how these behaviors relate to when she had her first menstrual period and whether she produced an egg during her menstrual cycles after she began having periods.'
From the website: 'Surgery is the most common treatment for early breast cancer. There may be a particular time during the menstrual cycle when breast cancer surgery is less successful and results in decreased survival.
The research team found that women who were operated on in the follicular phase (i.e., occurring between menstruation and ovulation) had a worse outcome (i.e., recurrence or death) than women in their luteal phase (after ovulation), while adjusting for stage of breast cancer, type of surgery, family history, and age.
This research (i.e., timing breast cancer surgery around the woman's menstrual cycle), could be implemented into the clinical arena as a simple, but powerful therapeutic tool, that could potentially extend and/ or save a substantial number of women's lives.'
The incidence of breast cancer in the United States dropped precipitously in 2003, and new research suggests the downward trend was the result of millions of women discontinuing use of hormone replacement therapy.
http://www.thebreastcancersite.com - Visit the Breast Cancer site to donate one free mammogram a day to an underprivileged woman. It takes less than a minute to go to their site and click on "donating a mammogram" for free (pink window in the middle). This doesn't cost you a thing. Their corporate sponsors/advertisers use the number of daily visits to donate mammogram in exchange for advertising.
Page Title: 'Breast Cancer Information: Awareness of Types (IBC
/ Inflammatory, Lump). Causes, Symptoms, Statistics, Mainstream Vs Alternative
Want to be Involved? Join us in this research, which provides an excellent opportunity to present to the world the latest knowledge about the thing we all find most interesting - sex! The work will not just benefit humanity, it will profoundly enhance your own sexuality as you learn more about our complex and diverse sexual evolution.
We seek help in finding the latest scientific (evolutionary) research on our biological and cultural sexual evolution and distributing content (overviews / summaries) to relevant pages.
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If you would like to be involved (or have comments about this website) please write to us. Many thanks! Karene
Analyse any human emotion, no matter how far it may be removed from the sphere of sex, and you are sure to discover somewhere the primal impulse, to which life owes its perpetuation. ... The primitive stages can always be re-established; the primitive mind is, in the fullest meaning of the word, imperishable. ... Mans most disagreeable habits and idiosyncrasies, his deceit, his cowardice, his lack of reverence, are engendered by his incomplete adjustment to a complicated civilisation. It is the result of the conflict between our instincts and our culture. (Sigmund Freud)
We get a lot of people writing to us asking questions about sex. So we have added an 'Ask a Question' feature to our sexuality pages - to help share questions and answers as a way of helping one another.
Please use Facebook Connect (below) to add your questions / comments - the best questions and answers will be added to the page.
Karene (September, 2012)
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