From the website: 'Stalking is conservatively defined as "a course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated (two or more occasions) visual or physical proximity, nonconsensual communication, or verbal, written, or implied threats, or a combination thereof, that would cause a reasonable person fear." (Tjaden and Thoennes, 1998).
Stalking behaviors also may include persistent patterns of sending the victim unwanted items or presents, following or laying in wait for the victim, damaging (or threatening to) property, defamation of character, or harassing the victim via the Internet. The overwhelming majority of victims are women (78%), and the majority of offenders (87%) are men.'
From the report: 'Domestic violence is about control, power, and domination.
While stalking may be perpetrated by strangers, acquaintances, or current
or former intimate partners, stalking is most often committed against women
in the domestic violence context. When victims of domestic violence leave
their abusers, abusers often stalk victims in an effort to regain control.
.. Stalking creates a psychological prison that deprives its victims of
basic liberty of
movement and security in their homes.
With the growth of the Internet, cyberstalking crimes are increasing. The veil of anonymity allows the perpetrator to exercise power and control over the victim by threatening the victim directly or posting messages.
This report to Congress provides information concerning stalking and the effectiveness of State antistalking efforts and legislation. Strong enforcement of stalking and cyberstalking laws, combined with a better understanding of the dynamics underlying this criminal behavior, will enable us to address these crimes more effectively.'
# The Interstate Stalking Punishment and Prevention Act of 1996 punishes persons with a fine and/or imprisonment for crossing state lines "with the intent to injure or harass another person...or place that person in reasonable fear of death or serious bodily injury ..." (18 USC § 2261A, 2261, 2262).
# Two laws authorize grants for law enforcement agencies to develop programs addressing stalking and for states to improve the process for entering stalking-related data into local, state and national crime information databases such as the National Crime Information Center. (42 USC §§ 3796gg, 14031)
# A 2006 expansion of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), originally passed in 2004, adds a cyberstalking provision to the law originally passed to protect women from domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking.
From the report: 'Inter-personal violence comprises crimes of domestic violence, sexual assault and stalking.
This 2004 report presents the findings of a computerised self-completion questionnaire included in the British Crime Survey. The results reveal that inter-personal violence is considerably widespread, affecting approximately one third of the population at some time in their lives. One in twenty women have experienced serious sexual assault, while one in five women and one in ten men have been victims of domestic violence.'
Page Title: 'Stalking: Sex Laws, Harassment & Abuse. How
to get an Injunction against Stalkers. Statistics, Strategies, Remedies'.
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